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SAE-AISI 1040 (S40C, C40, 1.0511, G10400) Carbon Steel

SAE-AISI 1040 steel is a plain carbon steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1040 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. 1.0511 is the EN numeric designation. And G10400 is the UNS number.

It has two common variants, each represented as a separate material. The material properties section shows ranges encompassing all variants. To see the details of each variant on a separate page, follow the links in the Variant Materials section further below.

Mechanical Properties

Graph bars compare SAE-AISI 1040 steel to other materials. From top to bottom: wrought plain carbon steel, iron alloys, and the entire database.

Brinell Hardness

160 to 180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

13 to 20 %

Modulus of Resilience (Unit Resilience)

270 to 780 kJ/m3

Poisson's Ratio


Reduction in Area

40 to 46 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

360 to 390 MPa 52 to 57 x 103 psi

Strength to Weight Ratio

73 to 83 kN-m/kg

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

570 to 650 MPa 83 to 94 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

320 to 540 MPa 46 to 78 x 103 psi

Unit Rupture Work (Ultimate Resilience)

81 to 98 MJ/m3

Thermal Properties

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Other Material Properties

Base Metal Price

3.0 % relative


7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98.6 to 99.03
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 0.9
Carbon (C) 0.37 to 0.44
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Variant Materials

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A29: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought, General Requirements for

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008