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Grade 32 Titanium vs. Grade 28 Titanium

Both grade 32 titanium and grade 28 titanium are titanium alloys. They have a moderately high 95% of their average alloy composition in common.

For each property being compared, the top bar is grade 32 titanium and the bottom bar is grade 28 titanium.

Metric UnitsUS Customary Units

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus, GPa 110
110
Elongation at Break, % 11
11 to 17
Fatigue Strength, MPa 390
330 to 480
Poisson's Ratio 0.32
0.32
Reduction in Area, % 28
22
Shear Modulus, GPa 40
40
Shear Strength, MPa 460
420 to 590
Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS), MPa 770
690 to 980
Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof), MPa 670
540 to 810

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion, J/g 410
410
Maximum Temperature: Mechanical, °C 310
330
Melting Completion (Liquidus), °C 1610
1640
Melting Onset (Solidus), °C 1560
1590
Specific Heat Capacity, J/kg-K 550
550
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-K 7.5
8.3
Thermal Expansion, µm/m-K 8.2
9.9

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume, % IACS 1.0
1.3
Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific), % IACS 2.1
2.7

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price, % relative 38
36
Density, g/cm3 4.5
4.5
Embodied Carbon, kg CO2/kg material 32
37
Embodied Energy, MJ/kg 530
600
Embodied Water, L/kg 180
370

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work), MJ/m3 83
87 to 110
Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience), kJ/m3 2100
1370 to 3100
Stiffness to Weight: Axial, points 13
13
Stiffness to Weight: Bending, points 35
35
Strength to Weight: Axial, points 47
43 to 61
Strength to Weight: Bending, points 41
39 to 49
Thermal Diffusivity, mm2/s 3.0
3.4
Thermal Shock Resistance, points 63
47 to 66

Alloy Composition

Aluminum (Al), % 4.5 to 5.5
2.5 to 3.5
Carbon (C), % 0 to 0.080
0 to 0.080
Hydrogen (H), % 0 to 0.015
0 to 0.015
Iron (Fe), % 0 to 0.25
0 to 0.25
Molybdenum (Mo), % 0.6 to 1.2
0
Nitrogen (N), % 0 to 0.030
0 to 0.030
Oxygen (O), % 0 to 0.11
0 to 0.15
Ruthenium (Ru), % 0
0.080 to 0.14
Silicon (Si), % 0.060 to 0.14
0
Tin (Sn), % 0.6 to 1.4
0
Titanium (Ti), % 88.1 to 93
92.4 to 95.4
Vanadium (V), % 0.6 to 1.4
2.0 to 3.0
Zirconium (Zr), % 0.6 to 1.4
0
Residuals, % 0 to 0.4
0 to 0.4