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2024-T3 Aluminum

2024-T3 aluminum is 2024 aluminum in the T3 temper. To achieve this temper, the metal is solution heat-treated, strain hardened, then naturally aged. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare 2024-T3 aluminum to: 2000-series alloys (top), all aluminum alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

120

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

71 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

15 %

Fatigue Strength

140 MPa 20 x 103 psi

Fracture Toughness

25 MPa-m1/2 22 x 103 psi-in1/2

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

27 GPa 3.9 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

290 MPa 41 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

480 MPa 69 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

320 MPa 47 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

390 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

200 °C 390 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

640 °C 1180 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

500 °C 930 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

880 J/kg-K 0.21 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

120 W/m-K 70 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

23 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

30 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

90 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

11 % relative

Calomel Potential

-600 mV

Density

3.0 g/cm3 190 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

8.3 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

150 MJ/kg 65 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1140 L/kg 140 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

62 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

740 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

46 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

44 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

45 points

Thermal Diffusivity

46 m2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

21 points

Alloy Composition

Aluminum (Al) 90.7 to 94.7
Copper (Cu) 3.8 to 4.9
Magnesium (Mg) 1.2 to 1.8
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.9
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.5
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.25
Zirconium (Zr) 0 to 0.2
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.15
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.15

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM B210: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes

ASTM B221: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.

EN 754-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Cold drawn rod/bar and tube. Mechanical properties

Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch (editor), 1984

ASTM B209: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate

EN 755-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Extruded rod/bar, tube and profiles. Mechanical properties

EN 485-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Sheet, strip and plate. Mechanical properties

Aluminum Standards and Data, Aluminum Association Inc., 2013

ISO 6361-2: Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys - Sheets, strips and plates - Part 2: Mechanical properties