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354.0-T61 Cast Aluminum

354.0-T61 aluminum is 354.0 aluminum in the T61 temper. To achieve this temper, the metal is solution heat-treated and artificially underaged. The degree of underaging is different from T64 and T65. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare 354.0-T61 aluminum to: ANSI/AA cast aluminums (top), all aluminum alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

71 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

3.0 %

Fatigue Strength

92 MPa 13 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

27 GPa 3.9 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

360 MPa 52 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

280 MPa 40 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

530 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

600 °C 1110 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

550 °C 1030 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

900 J/kg-K 0.21 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

130 W/m-K 72 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

21 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

32 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

110 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

9.5 % relative

Density

2.7 g/cm3 170 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

7.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

150 MJ/kg 63 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1070 L/kg 130 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

9.8 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

540 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

52 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

37 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

42 points

Thermal Diffusivity

52 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 points

Alloy Composition

Aluminum (Al) 87.3 to 89.4
Silicon (Si) 8.6 to 9.4
Copper (Cu) 1.6 to 2.0
Magnesium (Mg) 0.4 to 0.6
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.2
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.2
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.1
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.15

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM B686: Standard Specification for Aluminum Alloy Castings, High-Strength

ASTM B108: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Permanent Mold Castings

Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch (editor), 1984

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, ASM Handbook vol. 2, ASM International, 1993

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015