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356.0 (SG70A, A03560) Cast Aluminum

356.0 aluminum is an aluminum alloy formulated for casting. 356.0 is the Aluminum Association (AA) designation for this material. A03560 is the UNS number. Additionally, the SAE designation is 323. And the British Standard (BS) designation is LM25. Older literature may refer to this material as ASTM SG70A, but this is now discouraged.

This material originally entered the market in 1930.

The properties of 356.0 aluminum include six common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare 356.0 aluminum to: ANSI/AA cast aluminums (top), all aluminum alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

55 to 75

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

70 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

2.0 to 3.8 %

Fatigue Strength

55 to 75 MPa 8.0 to 11 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

27 GPa 3.8 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

140 to 190 MPa 20 to 28 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

160 to 240 MPa 23 to 35 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

100 to 190 MPa 14 to 27 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

500 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

620 °C 1140 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

570 °C 1050 °F

Solidification (Pattern Maker's) Shrinkage

1.3 %

Specific Heat Capacity

900 J/kg-K 0.22 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

150 to 170 W/m-K 87 to 97 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

21 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

40 to 43 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

140 to 150 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

9.5 % relative

Calomel Potential

-730 mV


2.6 g/cm3 160 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

8.0 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

150 MJ/kg 64 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1110 L/kg 130 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

3.2 to 8.2 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

70 to 250 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

53 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 to 26 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 to 33 points

Thermal Diffusivity

64 to 71 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

7.6 to 11 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast aluminum alloys, the composition of 356.0 aluminum is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of silicon (Si). Silicon is used to improve casting fluidity and lower melting temperature. It also has a strengthening effect.

Aluminum (Al) 90.1 to 93.3
Silicon (Si) 6.5 to 7.5
Magnesium (Mg) 0.2 to 0.45
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.6
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.35
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.35
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.25
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.25
Residuals 0 to 0.15

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B618: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Investment Castings

ASTM B108: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Permanent Mold Castings

ASTM B26: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Sand Castings

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASM Specialty Handbook: Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 1993

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015