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AISI 316 (1.4401, 1.4436, S31600) Stainless Steel

AISI 316 stainless steel is an austenitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 316 is the AISI designation for this material. 1.4401 is the EN numeric designation. S31600 is the UNS number. Additionally, the EN chemical designation is X5CrNiMo17-12-2. And the British Standard (BS) designation is 316S16.

This material is well established. The Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

The properties of AISI 316 stainless steel include seven common variations. The property values on this page show ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 316 stainless steel to: wrought austenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). The length of each bar shows the given value as a % of the largest value in the relevant set.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

8.0 to 55 %

Fatigue Strength

210 to 430 MPa 30 to 63 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

80 %

Rockwell B Hardness

80

Shear Modulus

78 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

350 to 690 MPa 51 to 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

520 to 1180 MPa 76 to 170 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

230 to 850 MPa 33 to 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1380 °C 2510 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

15 W/m-K 8.8 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

16 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

19 % relative

Calomel Potential

-50 mV

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

53 MJ/kg 23 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

150 L/kg 18 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

26

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

85 to 260 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

130 to 1820 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 to 42 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

18 to 31 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.1 m2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

12 to 26 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 62 to 72
Chromium (Cr) 16 to 18.5
Nickel (Ni) 10 to 14
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.0 to 3.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 2.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.1
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Handbook of Stainless Steels, D. Peckner, 1977

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A666: Standard Specification for Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002