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AISI 441 (S44100) Stainless Steel

AISI 441 stainless steel is a ferritic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. 441 is the AISI designation for this material. S44100 is the UNS number.

It has a moderately high embodied energy and a moderately low tensile strength among wrought ferritic stainless steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AISI 441 stainless steel to: wrought ferritic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

23 %

Fatigue Strength

180 MPa 26 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Rockwell B Hardness

77

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

300 MPa 43 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

470 MPa 68 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

270 MPa 39 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

550 °C 1030 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

910 °C 1670 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1440 °C 2630 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

23 W/m-K 13 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.7 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.1 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

13 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

41 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

130 L/kg 15 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

19

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

92 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

190 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.1 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 441 stainless steel is notable for including titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb). Titanium is used to broadly improve mechanical properties. Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength, particularly at elevated temperatures.

Iron (Fe) 76 to 82.2
Chromium (Cr) 17.5 to 19.5
Niobium (Nb) 0.3 to 0.9
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 1.0
Titanium (Ti) 0.1 to 0.5
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys: Traditional and Nontraditional Techniques, Helmi A. Youssef, 2016

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015