# ASTM A182 Grade F23 (K41650) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F23 is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized and tempered condition. F23 is the ASTM designation for this material. K41650 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high base cost among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a fairly high embodied energy and a moderately high electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F23 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 28 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

22 *%*

Fatigue Strength

320 *MPa* 47 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

46 *%*

Shear Modulus

74 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

360 *MPa* 52 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

570 *MPa* 83 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

460 *MPa* 66 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

450 *°C* 840 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1500 *°C* 2730 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1450 *°C* 2650 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

41 *W/m-K* 24 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.8 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.9 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

7.0 *% relative*

Density

8.0 *g/cm ^{3}* 500

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

2.5 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

36 *MJ/kg* 16 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

59 *L/kg* 7.1 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

5.7

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

550 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

20 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

11 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F23 is notable for including tungsten (W) and boron (B). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects. Boron is used to improve hardenability. It has a substantial effect when added in even tiny amounts.

Fe | 93.2 to 96.2 | |

Cr | 1.9 to 2.6 | |

W | 1.5 to 1.8 | |

Mn | 0.1 to 0.6 | |

Si | 0 to 0.5 | |

V | 0.2 to 0.3 | |

Ni | 0 to 0.4 | |

Mo | 0.050 to 0.3 | |

C | 0.040 to 0.1 | |

Nb | 0.020 to 0.080 | |

Ti | 0.0050 to 0.060 | |

P | 0 to 0.030 | |

Al | 0 to 0.030 | |

N | 0 to 0.015 | |

S | 0 to 0.010 | |

B | 0.0010 to 0.0060 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service