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ASTM A182 Grade F23 (K41650) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F23 is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized and tempered condition. F23 is the ASTM designation for this material. K41650 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high base cost among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a fairly high embodied energy and a moderately high electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F23 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

22 %

Fatigue Strength

320 MPa 47 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

46 %

Shear Modulus

74 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

360 MPa 52 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

570 MPa 83 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

460 MPa 66 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

450 °C 840 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1500 °C 2730 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

41 W/m-K 24 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.8 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

7.0 % relative

Density

8.0 g/cm3 500 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

36 MJ/kg 16 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

59 L/kg 7.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

5.7

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

550 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

20 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 points

Thermal Diffusivity

11 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F23 is notable for including tungsten (W) and boron (B). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects. Boron is used to improve hardenability. It has a substantial effect when added in even tiny amounts.

Iron (Fe) 93.2 to 96.2
Chromium (Cr) 1.9 to 2.6
Tungsten (W) 1.5 to 1.8
Manganese (Mn) 0.1 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Vanadium (V) 0.2 to 0.3
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.4
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.050 to 0.3
Carbon (C) 0.040 to 0.1
Niobium (Nb) 0.020 to 0.080
Titanium (Ti) 0.0050 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.030
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010
Boron (B) 0.0010 to 0.0060

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service