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ASTM A372 Grade B Carbon Steel

ASTM A372 grade B steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. ASTM A372 Grade B is the ASTM designation for this material. Older literature may refer to this material as Type II, but this is now discouraged.

It has a moderately high tensile strength among the wrought carbon or non-alloy steels in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A372 grade B steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

Fatigue Strength

240 MPa 35 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

380 MPa 55 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

600 MPa 87 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

350 MPa 51 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

52 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

330 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.9 to 99.85
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.4
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.35
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A372: Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015