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ASTM A372 Grade C Carbon Steel

ASTM A372 grade C steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. ASTM A372 Grade C is the ASTM designation for this material. Older literature may refer to this material as Type III, but this is now discouraged.

It has a fairly high tensile strength and a moderately low ductility among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A372 grade C steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

210

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

290 MPa 42 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

440 MPa 63 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

710 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

430 MPa 63 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

51 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.0 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

500 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

25 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

23 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

22 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.5 to 99.85
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.7
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.48
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A372: Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015