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ASTM A372 Grade D Carbon Steel

ASTM A372 grade D steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. ASTM A372 Grade D is the ASTM designation for this material. Older literature may refer to this material as Type IV, but this is now discouraged.

It has a moderately high embodied energy among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels. In addition, it has a very high tensile strength and a moderately low ductility.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A372 grade D steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

250

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

340 MPa 49 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

500 MPa 72 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

810 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

510 MPa 74 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

51 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.1 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.4 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

48 L/kg 5.8 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

700 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

29 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

26 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.1 to 97.9
Manganese (Mn) 1.4 to 1.8
Carbon (C) 0.4 to 0.5
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.17 to 0.27
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A372: Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015