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ASTM A387 Grade 12 Class 2 Steel

ASTM A387 grade 12 class 2 is ASTM A387 grade 12 steel in the normalized and tempered condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A387 grade 12 class 2 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

160

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

25 %

Fatigue Strength

230 MPa 33 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

520 MPa 75 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

310 MPa 45 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

430 °C 800 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

44 W/m-K 26 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 8.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

51 L/kg 6.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

2.7

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

250 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

18 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97 to 98.2
Chromium (Cr) 0.8 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.65
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.45 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.4
Carbon (C) 0.050 to 0.17
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.025

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM A387: Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015