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ASTM A439 Type D-2 (S-NiCr 20 2, F43000) Cast Iron

ASTM A439 type D-2 is a type of austenitic nodular cast iron. Cited properties are appropriate for the stress relieved condition. ASTM A439 Type D-2 is the ASTM designation for this material. F43000 is the UNS number. Additionally, the British Standard (BS) designation is S2. And the AFNOR (French) designation is FGS Ni20 Cr2.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A439 type D-2 to: cast irons (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness


Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

180 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

9.0 %

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

71 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

450 MPa 65 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

240 MPa 35 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

290 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1360 °C 2470 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

16 % relative


7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

50 MJ/kg 22 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

96 L/kg 11 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)


Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

34 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

160 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

13 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe)Fe 66.9 to 77.4
Nickel (Ni)Ni 18 to 22
Silicon (Si)Si 1.5 to 3.0
Chromium (Cr)Cr 1.8 to 2.8
Carbon (C)C 0 to 3.0
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0.7 to 1.3
Molybdenum (Mo)Mo 0.7 to 1.0
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.080

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A439: Standard Specification for Austenitic Ductile Iron Castings

ISO 2892: Austenitic Cast Irons - Classification

Cast Iron: Physical and Engineering Properties, Harold T. Angus, 1976

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008