# ASTM Grade 60 or 400 (F14101) Grey Cast Iron

Grade 60 cast iron is grey cast iron in the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. Grade 60 is the ASTM designation for this material. F14101 is the UNS number. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of grey cast iron.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade 60 cast iron to: cast irons (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

300

Compressive (Crushing) Strength

1290 *MPa* 190 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

180 *GPa* 26 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

9.6 *%*

Fatigue Strength

170 *MPa* 25 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

69 *GPa* 10 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

610 *MPa* 88 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

450 *MPa* 65 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

280 *MPa* 40 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 *J/g*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1380 *°C* 2510 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1180 *°C* 2150 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

490 *J/kg-K* 0.12 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

46 *W/m-K* 27 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

11 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.9 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.9 *% relative*

Density

7.5 *g/cm ^{3}* 470

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.5 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

21 *MJ/kg* 9.1 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

44 *L/kg* 5.2 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

37 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

210 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

13 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 92.1 to 93.9 | |

C | 3.1 to 3.4 | |

Si | 2.5 to 2.8 | |

Mn | 0.5 to 0.7 | |

P | 0 to 0.9 | |

S | 0 to 0.15 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM A48: Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings

Cast Iron: Physical and Engineering Properties, Harold T. Angus, 1976

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015