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AWS E320 (W88021) Weld Metal

AWS E320 is a weld metal formulated for joining stainless steels. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-welded condition. E320 is the AWS designation for this material. W88021 is the UNS number. Additionally, the ISO numeric designation is ES320.

It has a very high base cost and a very high embodied energy among stainless steel welding fillers.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AWS E320 to: stainless steel welding fillers (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

34 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

620 MPa 89 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

300 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1360 °C 2490 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

460 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

38 % relative

Density

8.2 g/cm3 510 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

6.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

91 MJ/kg 39 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

220 L/kg 26 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

28

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 31.8 to 43.5
Nickel (Ni) 32 to 36
Chromium (Cr) 19 to 21
Copper (Cu) 3.0 to 4.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.0 to 3.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 2.5
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.070
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

AWS A5.4: Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012