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AWS E33-31 (W33310) Weld Metal

AWS E33-31 is a weld metal formulated for joining stainless steels. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-welded condition. E33-31 is the AWS designation for this material. W33310 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high base cost among stainless steel welding fillers. In addition, it has a fairly high embodied energy and a fairly high tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AWS E33-31 to: stainless steel welding fillers (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

210 GPa 30 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

29 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Shear Modulus

81 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

810 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

320 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1380 °C 2520 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1330 °C 2430 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

36 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

6.0 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

86 MJ/kg 37 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

260 L/kg 31 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

44

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

28 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

24 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Chromium (Cr) 31 to 35
Nickel (Ni) 30 to 32
Iron (Fe) 24.7 to 34.8
Manganese (Mn) 2.5 to 4.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.0 to 2.0
Copper (Cu) 0.4 to 0.8
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.9
Nitrogen (N) 0.3 to 0.5
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.030
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

AWS A5.4: Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015