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AWS ER90S-D2 or ER62S-D2 Weld Metal

AWS ER90S-D2 is a weld metal formulated for joining alloy steels. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-welded condition. It has a fairly low base cost among alloy steel welding fillers. In addition, it has a moderately low embodied energy and a moderately low electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AWS ER90S-D2 to: alloy steel welding fillers (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

19 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

710 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

600 MPa 88 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

47 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.6 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 8.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

50 L/kg 6.0 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

130 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

980 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

25 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

23 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

21 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 95.2 to 97.4
Manganese (Mn) 1.6 to 2.1
Silicon (Si) 0.5 to 0.8
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.4 to 0.6
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.5
Carbon (C) 0.070 to 0.12
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.025
Residuals 0 to 0.5

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

AWS A5.28: Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003