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Annealed 304 Stainless Steel

Annealed AISI 304 is AISI 304 stainless steel in the annealed condition. It has the lowest strength and highest ductility compared to the other variants of AISI 304 stainless steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare annealed AISI 304 to: wrought austenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

43 %

Fatigue Strength

210 MPa 30 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

53 %

Rockwell B Hardness

79

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

400 MPa 58 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

580 MPa 84 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

230 MPa 34 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

290 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

420 °C 790 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

710 °C 1300 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.2 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

17 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.7 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

15 % relative

Calomel Potential

-80 mV

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.0 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

43 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

150 L/kg 17 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

20

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

200 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

140 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.2 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

12 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 66.5 to 74
Chromium (Cr) 18 to 20
Nickel (Ni) 8.0 to 10.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 2.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.75
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.1
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM A493: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Wire and Wire Rods for Cold Heading and Cold Forging

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A666: Standard Specification for Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels