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Annealed 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo Steel

Annealed SAE-AISI 4340 is SAE-AISI 4340 steel in the annealed condition. It has the lowest strength and highest ductility compared to the other variants of SAE-AISI 4340 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare annealed SAE-AISI 4340 to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

22 %

Fatigue Strength

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

430 MPa 63 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

690 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

470 MPa 68 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

430 °C 800 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

44 W/m-K 26 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.5 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.7 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

22 MJ/kg 9.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

53 L/kg 6.4 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

590 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

20 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 95.1 to 96.3
Nickel (Ni) 1.7 to 2.0
Chromium (Cr) 0.7 to 0.9
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 0.8
Carbon (C) 0.38 to 0.43
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.2 to 0.3
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.040
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM A752: Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Alloy Steel

Sintering of Advanced Materials: Fundamentals and Processes, Zhigang Zak Fang (editor), 2010

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015