# Annealed 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo Steel

Annealed SAE-AISI 4340 is SAE-AISI 4340 steel in the annealed condition. It has the lowest strength and highest ductility compared to the other variants of SAE-AISI 4340 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare annealed SAE-AISI 4340 to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

22 *%*

Fatigue Strength

330 *MPa* 48 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

430 *MPa* 63 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

690 *MPa* 100 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

470 *MPa* 68 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

430 *°C* 800 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2650 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2580 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

44 *W/m-K* 26 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.5 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.5 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.7 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

22 *MJ/kg* 9.6 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

53 *L/kg* 6.4 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

590 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

12 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

20 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 95.1 to 96.3 | |

Ni | 1.7 to 2.0 | |

Cr | 0.7 to 0.9 | |

Mn | 0.6 to 0.8 | |

C | 0.38 to 0.43 | |

Si | 0.15 to 0.35 | |

Mo | 0.2 to 0.3 | |

S | 0 to 0.040 | |

P | 0 to 0.035 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM A752: Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Alloy Steel

Sintering of Advanced Materials: Fundamentals and Processes, Zhigang Zak Fang (editor), 2010

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015