# Annealed (+A) 1.3566 Steel

EN 1.3566 +A steel is EN 1.3566 steel in the annealed condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.3566 +A steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

25 *%*

Fatigue Strength

300 *MPa* 43 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

390 *MPa* 56 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

600 *MPa* 88 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

410 *MPa* 59 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 *°C* 800 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2660 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

45 *W/m-K* 26 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.5 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.5 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

20 *MJ/kg* 8.5 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

52 *L/kg* 6.2 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

130 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

440 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

12 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 96.8 to 98.4 | |

Cr | 0.9 to 1.2 | |

Mn | 0.6 to 0.9 | |

Si | 0 to 0.4 | |

Mo | 0.15 to 0.25 | |

C | 0.12 to 0.18 | |

Cu | 0 to 0.3 | |

Al | 0 to 0.050 | |

S | 0 to 0.030 | |

P | 0 to 0.025 | |

O | 0 to 0.0020 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ISO 683-17: Heat-treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015