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Annealed (+A) 1.6522 Steel

EN 1.6522 +A steel is EN 1.6522 steel in the annealed condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.6522 +A steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

27 %

Fatigue Strength

290 MPa 42 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

390 MPa 57 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

610 MPa 88 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

390 MPa 56 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

410 °C 780 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

39 W/m-K 22 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.6 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.7 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

51 L/kg 6.0 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

400 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

10 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 96.6 to 98.5
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni) 0.4 to 0.7
Chromium (Cr) 0.35 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0.17 to 0.23
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.15 to 0.25
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.3
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.050
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.0020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ISO 683-17: Heat-treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015