# Annealed F1 Tool Steel

Annealed SAE-AISI F1 is SAE-AISI F1 steel in the annealed condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare annealed SAE-AISI F1 to: tool steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

21 *%*

Fatigue Strength

240 *MPa* 35 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 *GPa* 10 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

390 *MPa* 56 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

620 *MPa* 90 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

350 *MPa* 50 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1480 *°C* 2690 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1430 *°C* 2610 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

45 *W/m-K* 26 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

5.0 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.7 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

24 *MJ/kg* 10 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

46 *L/kg* 5.5 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

2.3

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

320 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

22 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

12 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 95.9 to 98 | |

W | 1.0 to 1.8 | |

C | 1.0 to 1.3 | |

Si | 0.1 to 0.5 | |

Mn | 0 to 0.5 | |

P | 0 to 0.030 | |

S | 0 to 0.030 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM A681: Standard Specification for Tool Steels Alloy

Tool Steels, 5th ed., George Roberts et al., 1998

Tool Steels: Properties and Performance, Rafael A. Mesquita (editor), 2016

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996