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Annealed (O61) C65400 Bronze

O61 C65400 bronze is C65400 bronze in the O61 (annealed) temper. It has the lowest strength and highest ductility compared to the other variants of C65400 bronze. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare O61 C65400 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 17 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

47 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.34

Shear Modulus

43 GPa 6.2 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

350 MPa 51 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

500 MPa 73 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

170 MPa 25 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

200 °C 380 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1020 °C 1860 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

960 °C 1750 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

400 J/kg-K 0.1 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

36 W/m-K 21 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

17 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

7.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

31 % relative

Density

8.7 g/cm3 540 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

45 MJ/kg 19 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

310 L/kg 37 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

190 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

130 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.3 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

19 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 points

Thermal Diffusivity

10 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 points

Alloy Composition

Copper (Cu) 93.8 to 96.1
Silicon (Si) 2.7 to 3.4
Tin (Sn) 1.2 to 1.9
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.5
Chromium (Cr) 0.010 to 0.12
Lead (Pb) 0 to 0.050
Residuals 0 to 0.2

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM B96: Standard Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar for General Purposes and Pressure Vessels

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015