# Cold Drawn (+U+C) 1.0214 Steel

EN 1.0214 +U+C steel is EN 1.0214 steel in the cold worked (strain hardened) condition. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of EN 1.0214 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0214 +U+C steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

130

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

23 *%*

Fatigue Strength

250 *MPa* 37 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

66 *%*

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

290 *MPa* 42 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

460 *MPa* 66 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

360 *MPa* 52 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 *°C* 2670 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2600 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

53 *W/m-K* 31 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

6.9 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

7.9 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

18 *MJ/kg* 7.8 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

46 *L/kg* 5.5 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

98 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

340 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

14 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 99.17 to 99.6 | |

Mn | 0.3 to 0.5 | |

C | 0.080 to 0.12 | |

Si | 0 to 0.1 | |

Al | 0.020 to 0.060 | |

P | 0 to 0.025 | |

S | 0 to 0.025 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

EN 10263-2: Steel rod, bars and wire for cold heading and cold extrusion - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for steels not intended for heat treatment after cold working

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015