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Cold Worked and Stress Relieved Grade 28 Titanium

Cold worked and stress relieved grade 28 titanium is grade 28 titanium in the cold worked and stress relieved condition. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of grade 28 titanium.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare cold worked and stress relieved grade 28 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 15 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 %

Fatigue Strength

480 MPa 69 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

22 %

Shear Modulus

40 GPa 5.8 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

590 MPa 85 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

980 MPa 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

810 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

330 °C 630 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1640 °C 2980 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1590 °C 2890 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

550 J/kg-K 0.13 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

8.3 W/m-K 4.8 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

9.9 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.7 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

36 % relative

Density

4.5 g/cm3 280 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

37 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

600 MJ/kg 260 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

370 L/kg 44 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

3100 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

61 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

49 points

Thermal Diffusivity

3.4 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

66 points

Alloy Composition

Titanium (Ti) 92.4 to 95.4
Aluminum (Al) 2.5 to 3.5
Vanadium (V) 2.0 to 3.0
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.25
Ruthenium (Ru) 0.080 to 0.14
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.15
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.030
Hydrogen (H) 0 to 0.015
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.