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EN 1.0491 (S275NL) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.0491 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. 1.0491 is the EN numeric designation for this material. S275NL is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly high base cost among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels. In addition, it has a fairly low thermal conductivity and a fairly high embodied energy.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0491 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

130

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

26 %

Fatigue Strength

200 MPa 29 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

49 J 36 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

280 MPa 41 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

440 MPa 64 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

270 MPa 40 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

47 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.4 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 9.0 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

49 L/kg 5.8 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

99 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

200 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 96.1 to 99.55
Manganese (Mn) 0.45 to 1.6
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.45
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.35
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.18
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.13
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.070
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 0.060
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.025
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.017
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10025-3: Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015