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EN 1.3956 (GX4CrNiMnN22-12-5) Cast Stainless Steel

EN 1.3956 stainless steel is a duplex stainless steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the solution annealed (AT) condition. 1.3956 is the EN numeric designation for this material. GX4CrNiMnN22-12-5 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly high base cost and the highest embodied energy among cast duplex stainless steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.3956 stainless steel to: cast duplex stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

27 %

Fatigue Strength

240 MPa 35 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

79 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

650 MPa 94 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

300 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

460 °C 860 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1080 °C 1970 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1380 °C 2510 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

22 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

4.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

68 MJ/kg 29 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

180 L/kg 22 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

34

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

270 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

23 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.3956 stainless steel is notable for including vanadium (V) and containing a comparatively high amount of manganese (Mn). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering. Manganese is used to improve ductility at elevated temperatures. It also permits a higher nitrogen content than would otherwise be possible.

Iron (Fe) 51.9 to 62.1
Chromium (Cr) 20.5 to 23.5
Nickel (Ni) 11.5 to 13.5
Manganese (Mn) 4.0 to 6.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.5 to 3.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nitrogen (N) 0.2 to 0.4
Niobium (Nb) 0.1 to 0.3
Vanadium (V) 0.1 to 0.3
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 19960: Cast steels and alloys with special physical properties

Duplex Stainless Steels, Iris Alvarez-Armas and Suzanne Degallaix-Moreuil (editors), 2009

Duplex Stainless Steels: Microstructure, Properties and Applications, Robert N. Gunn (editor), 1997

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015