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EN 1.4325 (X9CrNi18-9) Stainless Steel

EN 1.4325 stainless steel is an austenitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the solution annealed (AT) condition. 1.4325 is the EN numeric designation for this material. X9CrNi18-9 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among the wrought austenitic stainless steels in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.4325 stainless steel to: wrought austenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

45 %

Fatigue Strength

190 MPa 28 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

91 J 67 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

450 MPa 66 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

650 MPa 94 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

210 MPa 31 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

290 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

410 °C 780 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

930 °C 1700 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1430 °C 2600 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1380 °C 2520 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.2 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

16 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.8 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

15 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.0 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

42 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

140 L/kg 17 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

18

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

230 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

110 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

23 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.3 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4325 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Nickel is primarily used to achieve a specific microstructure. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on mechanical properties and certain types of corrosion. Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 67.8 to 75
Chromium (Cr) 17 to 19
Nickel (Ni) 8.0 to 10
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 2.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Carbon (C) 0.030 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10088-3: Stainless steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products, bars, rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010