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EN 1.4421 (GX4CrNi16-4) Cast Stainless Steel

EN 1.4421 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for casting. 1.4421 is the EN numeric designation for this material. GX4CrNi16-4 is the EN chemical designation.

It has the lowest thermal conductivity among cast martensitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately low electrical conductivity and a moderately high base cost.

The properties of EN 1.4421 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.4421 stainless steel to: cast martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 to 17 %

Fatigue Strength

380 to 520 MPa 54 to 75 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

30 to 67 J 22 to 50 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

880 to 1100 MPa 130 to 160 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

620 to 950 MPa 89 to 140 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

410 °C 770 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

870 °C 1610 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1440 °C 2620 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2540 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.4 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

12 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

36 MJ/kg 16 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

130 L/kg 15 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

18

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 to 140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

960 to 2270 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

31 to 39 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

26 to 30 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.4 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

31 to 39 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4421 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance. Nickel is primarily used to achieve a specific microstructure. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on mechanical properties and certain types of corrosion.

Iron (Fe) 74.4 to 80.5
Chromium (Cr) 15.5 to 17.5
Nickel (Ni) 4.0 to 5.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.8
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10293: Steel castings - Steel castings for general engineering uses

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015