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EN 1.5681 (GX9Ni5) Cast Steel

EN 1.5681 steel is an alloy steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. 1.5681 is the EN numeric designation for this material. GX9Ni5 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly high base cost among cast alloy steels. In addition, it has a moderately high electrical conductivity and a moderately high embodied energy.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.5681 steel to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

Fatigue Strength

300 MPa 43 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

110 J 83 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

630 MPa 91 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

430 MPa 62 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 780 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

48 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

9.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

5.0 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

25 MJ/kg 11 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

55 L/kg 6.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

490 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

22 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.5681 steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of nickel (Ni). Nickel is used to improve mechanical properties, and to make the alloy easier to heat treat.

Iron (Fe) 92.9 to 94.9
Nickel (Ni) 4.5 to 5.5
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 0.8
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0.060 to 0.12
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10293: Steel castings - Steel castings for general engineering uses

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015