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EN 1.7231 (G42CrMo4) Cast Steel

EN 1.7231 steel is an alloy steel formulated for casting. 1.7231 is the EN numeric designation for this material. G42CrMo4 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among cast alloy steels. In addition, it can have a very low ductility and has a moderately low electrical conductivity.

The properties of EN 1.7231 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.7231 steel to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

240 to 280

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 to 12 %

Fatigue Strength

360 to 500 MPa 52 to 72 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

28 to 30 J 20 to 22 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

790 to 930 MPa 110 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

570 to 800 MPa 83 to 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 790 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

46 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

51 L/kg 6.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

87 to 100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

870 to 1700 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

28 to 33 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

24 to 27 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

23 to 27 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.7231 steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn). Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures). Manganese is used to improve hardenability and surface quality.

Iron (Fe) 96.4 to 98.1
Chromium (Cr) 0.8 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 1.0
Carbon (C) 0.38 to 0.45
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.15 to 0.3
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10293: Steel castings - Steel castings for general engineering uses

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015