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EN 1.8519 (31CrMoV9) Nitriding Steel

EN 1.8519 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. 1.8519 is the EN numeric designation for this material. 31CrMoV9 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly high embodied energy among EN wrought alloy steels. In addition, it has a moderately low thermal conductivity and a moderately high base cost.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.8519 steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

360

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

10 %

Fatigue Strength

630 MPa 91 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

28 J 21 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

710 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1200 MPa 170 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

1030 MPa 150 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

450 °C 850 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

40 W/m-K 23 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.1 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

26 MJ/kg 11 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

58 L/kg 6.9 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

3.2

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

2790 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

43 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

32 points

Thermal Diffusivity

11 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

35 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.8519 steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr) and including vanadium (V). Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 95.7 to 97.1
Chromium (Cr) 2.3 to 2.7
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0.27 to 0.34
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.15 to 0.25
Vanadium (V) 0.1 to 0.2
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 683-5: Heat treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 5: Nitriding steels

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015