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EN 1.8828 (P420ML2) Steel

EN 1.8828 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the thermomechanically rolled condition. 1.8828 is the EN numeric designation for this material. P420ML2 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately high thermal conductivity and a fairly low tensile strength among EN wrought alloy steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.8828 steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

22 %

Fatigue Strength

310 MPa 45 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

110 J 83 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

370 MPa 53 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

580 MPa 84 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

440 MPa 64 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 760 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

49 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.3 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 9.2 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

48 L/kg 5.7 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

530 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.8828 steel is notable for including titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb). Titanium is used to broadly improve mechanical properties. Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength.

Iron (Fe) 96.7 to 99.98
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.7
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.2
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.16
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.1
Aluminum (Al) 0.020 to 0.040
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 0.050
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.0050

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10028-5: Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 5: Weldable fine grain steels, thermomechanically rolled

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015