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EN 1.8918 (P460NL2) Steel

EN 1.8918 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. 1.8918 is the EN numeric designation for this material. P460NL2 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately high embodied energy and a moderately low tensile strength among EN wrought alloy steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.8918 steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

19 %

Fatigue Strength

330 MPa 49 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

88 J 65 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

400 MPa 58 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

640 MPa 93 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

490 MPa 71 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 760 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

46 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.5 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.7 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

24 MJ/kg 10 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

51 L/kg 6.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

640 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

23 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.8918 steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of manganese (Mn) and including niobium (Nb). Manganese is used to improve hardenability, hot workability, and surface quality. There is some loss of ductility and weldability, however. Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength.

Iron (Fe) 95.2 to 98.9
Manganese (Mn) 1.1 to 1.7
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.8
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.7
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.3
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.2
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.2
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.1
Aluminum (Al) 0.020 to 0.050
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 0.050
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.030
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.025
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.0050

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10028-3: Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 3: Weldable fine grain steels, normalized

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015