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Full-Hard (H04) C31400 Bronze

H04 C31400 bronze is C31400 bronze in the H04 (full hard) temper. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of C31400 bronze. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare H04 C31400 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

6.8 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

42 GPa 6.1 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

240 MPa 35 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

420 MPa 60 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

310 MPa 45 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

200 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

180 °C 350 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1040 °C 1900 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1010 °C 1850 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

380 J/kg-K 0.091 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

180 W/m-K 100 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

42 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

43 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

29 % relative

Density

8.8 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

42 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

310 L/kg 37 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

26 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

420 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.1 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

13 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

14 points

Thermal Diffusivity

54 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 points

Alloy Composition

Copper (Cu) 87.5 to 90.5
Zinc (Zn) 5.8 to 11.2
Lead (Pb) 1.3 to 2.5
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.7
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM B140: Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead (Red Brass or Hardware Bronze) Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001