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Full-Hard (H04) C31600 Bronze

H04 C31600 bronze is C31600 bronze in the H04 (full hard) temper. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of C31600 bronze. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare H04 C31600 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

6.7 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

42 GPa 6.1 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

270 MPa 39 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

460 MPa 67 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

390 MPa 57 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

200 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

180 °C 360 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1040 °C 1900 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1010 °C 1850 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

380 J/kg-K 0.091 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

140 W/m-K 81 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

32 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

33 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

29 % relative

Density

8.8 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.7 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

43 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

310 L/kg 37 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

30 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

690 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.1 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

15 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

15 points

Thermal Diffusivity

42 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 points

Alloy Composition

Copper (Cu) 87.5 to 90.5
Zinc (Zn) 5.2 to 10.5
Lead (Pb) 1.3 to 2.5
Nickel (Ni) 0.7 to 1.2
Phosphorus (P) 0.040 to 0.1
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM B140: Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead (Red Brass or Hardware Bronze) Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015