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Grade 12 (3.7105, R53400) Titanium

Grade 12 titanium is a titanium alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. 3.7105 is the EN numeric designation for this material. R53400 is the UNS number. Additionally, the ASTM designation is Titanium Grade 12.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among the wrought titaniums in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade 12 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

21 %

Fatigue Strength

280 MPa 41 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

28 %

Shear Modulus

39 GPa 5.7 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

530 MPa 77 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

410 MPa 59 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

420 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

320 °C 600 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1660 °C 3020 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1610 °C 2930 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

540 J/kg-K 0.13 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

21 W/m-K 12 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

9.6 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

3.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

6.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

37 % relative

Density

4.5 g/cm3 280 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

31 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

500 MJ/kg 220 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

110 L/kg 13 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

770 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

32 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.5 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

37 points

Alloy Composition

Titanium (Ti) 97.6 to 99.2
Nickel (Ni) 0.6 to 0.9
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.2 to 0.4
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.3
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.25
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.030
Hydrogen (H) 0 to 0.015
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Aerospace Materials, Brian Cantor et al. (editors), 2001

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.