# Grade 12 (3.7105, R53400) Titanium

Grade 12 titanium is a titanium alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. 3.7105 is the EN numeric designation for this material. R53400 is the UNS number. Additionally, the ASTM designation is Titanium Grade 12.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among the wrought titaniums in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade 12 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 16 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

21 *%*

Fatigue Strength

280 *MPa* 41 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

28 *%*

Shear Modulus

39 *GPa* 5.7 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

330 *MPa* 48 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

530 *MPa* 77 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

410 *MPa* 59 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

420 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

320 *°C* 600 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1660 *°C* 3020 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1610 *°C* 2930 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

540 *J/kg-K* 0.13 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

21 *W/m-K* 12 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

9.6 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

3.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

6.6 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

37 *% relative*

Density

4.5 *g/cm ^{3}* 280

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

31 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

500 *MJ/kg* 220 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

110 *L/kg* 13 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

770 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

32 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

8.5 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

37 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Ti | 97.6 to 99.2 | |

Ni | 0.6 to 0.9 | |

Mo | 0.2 to 0.4 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.3 | |

O | 0 to 0.25 | |

C | 0 to 0.080 | |

N | 0 to 0.030 | |

H | 0 to 0.015 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Aerospace Materials, Brian Cantor et al. (editors), 2001

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.