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Grade 31 (R53532) Titanium

Grade 31 titanium is a titanium alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. R53532 is the UNS number for this material. Additionally, the ASTM designation is Titanium Grade 31.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade 31 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

Fatigue Strength

300 MPa 44 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

34 %

Shear Modulus

41 GPa 5.9 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

320 MPa 47 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

510 MPa 74 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

450 MPa 65 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

420 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

320 °C 600 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1660 °C 3020 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1610 °C 2930 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

540 J/kg-K 0.13 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

21 W/m-K 12 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

8.7 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

3.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

6.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Density

4.5 g/cm3 280 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

36 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

600 MJ/kg 260 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

230 L/kg 27 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

99 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

940 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

32 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.5 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

39 points

Alloy Composition

Titanium (Ti) 97.9 to 99.76
Cobalt (Co) 0.2 to 0.8
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.35
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.3
Palladium (Pd) 0.040 to 0.080
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.050
Hydrogen (H) 0 to 0.015
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007