# Half-Hard 301L Stainless Steel

Half-hard AISI 301L is AISI 301L stainless steel in the half-hard temper. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of AISI 301L stainless steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare half-hard AISI 301L to: wrought austenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

320

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 *GPa* 28 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

22 *%*

Fatigue Strength

530 *MPa* 76 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

77 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

660 *MPa* 96 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1040 *MPa* 150 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

790 *MPa* 110 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

410 *°C* 770 *°F*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

890 *°C* 1640 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1430 *°C* 2600 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1390 *°C* 2530 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

480 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

15 *W/m-K* 8.8 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

16 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.7 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

13 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

2.7 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

39 *MJ/kg* 17 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

130 *L/kg* 16 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

19

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

210 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1580 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

37 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

29 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

4.1 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

24 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 70.7 to 78 | |

Cr | 16 to 18 | |

Ni | 6.0 to 8.0 | |

Mn | 0 to 2.0 | |

Si | 0 to 1.0 | |

N | 0 to 0.2 | |

P | 0 to 0.045 | |

C | 0 to 0.030 | |

S | 0 to 0.030 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM A666: Standard Specification for Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar

Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys: Traditional and Nontraditional Techniques, Helmi A. Youssef, 2016

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010