# Half-Hard (H02) C31600 Bronze

H02 C31600 bronze is C31600 bronze in the H02 (half hard) temper. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare H02 C31600 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 16 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

11 *%*

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

42 *GPa* 6.1 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

210 *MPa* 30 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

350 *MPa* 51 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

210 *MPa* 31 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

200 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

180 *°C* 360 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1040 *°C* 1900 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1010 *°C* 1850 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

380 *J/kg-K* 0.091 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

140 *W/m-K* 81 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

18 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

32 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

33 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

29 *% relative*

Density

8.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 550

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

2.7 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

43 *MJ/kg* 18 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

310 *L/kg* 37 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

33 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

200 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.1 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

11 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

13 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

42 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

12 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Cu | 87.5 to 90.5 | |

Zn | 5.2 to 10.5 | |

Pb | 1.3 to 2.5 | |

Ni | 0.7 to 1.2 | |

P | 0.040 to 0.1 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.1 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM B140: Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead (Red Brass or Hardware Bronze) Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015