# Hardwood

Hardwood is a wood-based material. It has the lowest heat capacity and a moderately high tensile strength among wood-based materials. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare hardwood to other wood-based materials (top) and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Compressive (Crushing) Strength

40 *MPa* 5.8 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

12 *GPa* 1.7 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

2.0 *%*

Poisson's Ratio

0.37

Shear Modulus

0.9 *GPa* 0.13 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

80 *MPa* 12 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Specific Heat Capacity

1260 *J/kg-K* 0.3 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

0.16 *W/m-K* 0.093 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

6.0 *µm/m-K*

## Other Material Properties

Density

0.7 *g/cm ^{3}* 44

*lb/ft*

^{3}Dielectric Strength (Breakdown Potential)

0.5 *kV/mm* 0.020 *V/mil*

## Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

9.5 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

110 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

59 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

0.18 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

79 *points*

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, 1999