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Normalized 4130 Cr-Mo Steel

Normalized SAE-AISI 4130 is SAE-AISI 4130 steel in the normalized condition. It has the highest ductility compared to the other variants of SAE-AISI 4130 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare normalized SAE-AISI 4130 to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

26 %

Fatigue Strength

320 MPa 47 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

430 MPa 62 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

670 MPa 97 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

440 MPa 63 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 790 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

43 W/m-K 25 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.4 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.4 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

50 L/kg 6.0 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

500 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 m2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

20 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.3 to 98.2
Chromium (Cr) 0.8 to 1.1
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0.28 to 0.33
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.15 to 0.25
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.040
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM A322: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015