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Quenched and Tempered (+QT) 1.7233 Steel

EN 1.7233 +QT steel is EN 1.7233 steel in the quenched and tempered condition. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of EN 1.7233 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.7233 +QT steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

290

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

18 %

Fatigue Strength

530 MPa 77 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

56 J 41 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

57 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

590 MPa 86 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

960 MPa 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

780 MPa 110 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

430 °C 810 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

39 W/m-K 22 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.0 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 9.1 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

53 L/kg 6.3 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

3.3

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

160 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1630 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

34 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

28 points

Thermal Diffusivity

11 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

28 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 96.2 to 97.5
Chromium (Cr) 1.2 to 1.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.5 to 0.7
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0.39 to 0.45
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

EN 10269: Steels and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low temperature properties

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015