# Quenched and Tempered (+QT) 1.7233 Steel

EN 1.7233 +QT steel is EN 1.7233 steel in the quenched and tempered condition. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of EN 1.7233 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.7233 +QT steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

290

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

18 *%*

Fatigue Strength

530 *MPa* 77 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

56 *J* 41 *ft-lb*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

57 *%*

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

590 *MPa* 86 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

960 *MPa* 140 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

780 *MPa* 110 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

430 *°C* 810 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2660 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

39 *W/m-K* 22 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.0 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.6 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

21 *MJ/kg* 9.1 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

53 *L/kg* 6.3 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

3.3

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

160 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1630 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

34 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

28 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

11 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

28 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 96.2 to 97.5 | |

Cr | 1.2 to 1.5 | |

Mo | 0.5 to 0.7 | |

Mn | 0.4 to 0.7 | |

C | 0.39 to 0.45 | |

Si | 0 to 0.4 | |

S | 0 to 0.035 | |

P | 0 to 0.025 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

EN 10269: Steels and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low temperature properties

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015