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SAE-AISI 1023 (G10230) Carbon Steel

SAE-AISI 1023 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1023 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. G10230 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high thermal conductivity and a fairly low electrical conductivity among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels.

The properties of SAE-AISI 1023 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 1023 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

130 to 140

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 to 29 %

Fatigue Strength

180 to 270 MPa 26 to 40 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

46 to 56 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

280 to 300 MPa 41 to 43 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

430 to 480 MPa 63 to 70 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

240 to 410 MPa 34 to 60 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

53 W/m-K 31 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

6.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.8 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

45 L/kg 5.4 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

77 to 100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

150 to 450 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

15 to 17 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 to 17 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 to 15 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 99.06 to 99.5
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0.2 to 0.25
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A29: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought, General Requirements for

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015