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SAE-AISI 1090 (1.1273, G10900) Carbon Steel

SAE-AISI 1090 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1090 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. 1.1273 is the EN numeric designation. And G10900 is the UNS number.

It can have a fairly high tensile strength and has a fairly low ductility among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels.

The properties of SAE-AISI 1090 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 1090 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220 to 280

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 %

Fatigue Strength

320 to 380 MPa 47 to 55 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

28 to 45 %

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

470 to 570 MPa 69 to 82 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

790 to 950 MPa 110 to 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

520 to 610 MPa 76 to 88 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

240 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

50 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.0 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

82 to 91 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

730 to 1000 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

28 to 34 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

24 to 27 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

25 to 31 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98 to 98.6
Carbon (C) 0.85 to 1.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 0.9
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A29: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought, General Requirements for

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015