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SAE-AISI 1095 (SUP4, 1.1274, C100S, G10950) Carbon Steel

SAE-AISI 1095 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1095 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. 1.1274 is the EN numeric designation. And G10950 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly low thermal conductivity among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels. In addition, it can have a fairly low ductility and has a fairly high electrical conductivity.

The properties of SAE-AISI 1095 steel include three common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 1095 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200 to 270

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

10 to 11 %

Fatigue Strength

310 to 370 MPa 44 to 53 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Reduction in Area

28 to 45 %

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

400 to 540 MPa 59 to 78 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

680 to 900 MPa 99 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

500 to 590 MPa 72 to 86 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

240 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

47 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

9.6 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

11 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative


7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.0 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

45 L/kg 5.4 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

63 to 84 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

660 to 930 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 to 32 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 to 26 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

22 to 29 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe)Fe 98.4 to 98.8
Carbon (C)C 0.9 to 1.0
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0.3 to 0.5
Sulfur (S)S 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A29: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought, General Requirements for

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015