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SAE-AISI 4161 (G41610) Cr-Mo Steel

SAE-AISI 4161 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. 4161 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. G41610 is the UNS number.

It has a moderately high tensile strength among the SAE-AISI wrought steels in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare SAE-AISI 4161 steel to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

Fatigue Strength

290 MPa 42 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

420 MPa 62 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

680 MPa 98 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

410 MPa 60 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 790 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

43 W/m-K 25 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.7 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

50 L/kg 6.0 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

460 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

22 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of SAE-AISI 4161 steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr). Manganese is used to improve hardenability, hot workability, and surface quality. There is some loss of ductility and weldability, however. Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures).

Iron (Fe) 96.7 to 97.6
Manganese (Mn) 0.75 to 1.0
Chromium (Cr) 0.7 to 0.9
Carbon (C) 0.56 to 0.64
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.25 to 0.35
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.040
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A752: Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Alloy Steel

ASTM A322: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015