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SAE-AISI 5140 (SCr440, G51400) Chromium Steel

SAE-AISI 5140 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 5140 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. G51400 is the UNS number.

The properties of SAE-AISI 5140 steel include four common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 5140 steel to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170 to 290

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

12 to 29 %

Fatigue Strength

220 to 570 MPa 32 to 83 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

360 to 600 MPa 53 to 88 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

560 to 970 MPa 81 to 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

290 to 840 MPa 42 to 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 780 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

45 W/m-K 26 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.1 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.2 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

49 L/kg 5.9 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

76 to 180 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

220 to 1880 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

20 to 34 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 to 28 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 to 29 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of SAE-AISI 5140 steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr). Manganese is used to improve hardenability, hot workability, and surface quality. There is some loss of ductility and weldability, however. Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures).

Iron (Fe) 97.3 to 98.1
Manganese (Mn) 0.7 to 0.9
Chromium (Cr) 0.7 to 0.9
Carbon (C) 0.38 to 0.43
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.040
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A752: Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Alloy Steel

ASTM A322: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015