Menu (ESC)

SAE-AISI H23 (T20823) Tungsten Hot-Work Steel

SAE-AISI H23 steel is a tool steel. H23 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. T20823 is the UNS number.

The properties of SAE-AISI H23 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI H23 steel to: tool steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 30 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

80 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

760 to 1550 MPa 110 to 220 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1680 °C 3060 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1630 °C 2960 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

440 J/kg-K 0.1 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

20 W/m-K 12 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

34 % relative


8.7 g/cm3 540 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

6.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

110 MJ/kg 46 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

120 L/kg 14 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)


Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

22 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 to 49 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 to 34 points

Thermal Diffusivity

5.2 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

23 to 47 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe)Fe 71.3 to 76.7
Chromium (Cr)Cr 11 to 12.8
Tungsten (W)W 11 to 12.8
Vanadium (V)V 0.75 to 1.3
Silicon (Si)Si 0.15 to 0.6
Carbon (C)C 0.25 to 0.35
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0.15 to 0.4
Nickel (Ni)Ni 0 to 0.3
Copper (Cu)Cu 0 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S)S 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A681: Standard Specification for Tool Steels Alloy

Tool Steels, 5th ed., George Roberts et al., 1998

Tool Steels: Properties and Performance, Rafael A. Mesquita (editor), 2016

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996