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SAE-AISI O1 (T31501) Oil-Hardening Steel

SAE-AISI O1 steel is a tool steel. O1 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. T31501 is the UNS number.

The properties of SAE-AISI O1 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI O1 steel to: tool steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

640 to 2060 MPa 93 to 300 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

43 W/m-K 25 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.4 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

27 MJ/kg 12 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

51 L/kg 6.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

23 to 73 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 to 46 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

21 to 68 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 95 to 97.4
Manganese (Mn) 1.0 to 1.4
Carbon (C) 0.85 to 1.0
Chromium (Cr) 0.4 to 0.6
Tungsten (W) 0.4 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.3
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.3
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

SAE J437: Selection and Heat Treatment of Tool and Die Steels

ASTM A681: Standard Specification for Tool Steels Alloy

Tool Steels, 5th ed., George Roberts et al., 1998

Tool Steels: Properties and Performance, Rafael A. Mesquita (editor), 2016

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996